【Python】30个有关Python的小技巧[转]

从我开始学习python的时候,我就开始自己总结一个python小技巧的集合。后来当我什么时候在Stack Overflow
或者在某个开源软件里看到一段很酷代码的时候,我就很惊讶:原来还能这么做!,当时我会努力的自己尝试一下这段代码,直到我懂了它的整体思路以后,我就把这段代码加到我的集合里。这篇博客其实就是这个集合整理后一部分的公开亮相。如果你已经是个python大牛,那么基本上你应该知道这里面的大多数用法了,但我想你应该也能发现一些你不知道的新技巧。而如果你之前是一个c,c++,java的程序员,同时在学习python,或者干脆就是一个刚刚学习编程的新手,那么你应该会看到很多特别有用能让你感到惊奇的实用技巧,就像我当初一样。

每一个技巧和语言用法都会在一个个实例中展示给大家,也不需要有其他的说明。我已经尽力把每个例子弄的通俗易懂,但是因为读者对python的熟悉程度不同,仍然可能难免有一些晦涩的地方。所以如果这些例子本身无法让你读懂,至少这个例子的标题在你后面去google搜索的时候会帮到你。

整个集合大概是按照难易程度排序,简单常见的在前面,比较少见的在最后。

1.1 拆箱

>>> a, b, c = 1, 2, 3
>>> a, b, c
(1, 2, 3)
>>> a, b, c = [1, 2, 3]
>>> a, b, c
(1, 2, 3)
>>> a, b, c = (2 * i + 1 for i in range(3))
>>> a, b, c
(1, 3, 5)
>>> a, (b, c), d = [1, (2, 3), 4]
>>> a
1
>>> b
2
>>> c
3
>>> d
4

1.2 拆箱变量交换

>>> a, b = 1, 2
>>> a, b = b, a
>>> a, b
(2, 1)

1.3 扩展拆箱(只兼容python3)

>>> a, *b, c = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> a
1
>>> b
[2, 3, 4]
>>> c
5

1.4 负数索引

>>> a = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
>>> a[-1]
10
>>> a[-3]
8

1.5 切割列表

>>> a = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
>>> a[2:8]
[2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]

1.6 负数索引切割列表

>>> a = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
>>> a[-4:-2]
[7, 8]

1.7指定步长切割列表

>>> a = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
>>> a[::2]
[0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10]
>>> a[::3]
[0, 3, 6, 9]
>>> a[2:8:2]
[2, 4, 6]

1.8 负数步长切割列表

>>> a = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
>>> a[::-1]
[10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0]
>>> a[::-2]
[10, 8, 6, 4, 2, 0]

1.9 列表切割赋值

>>> a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> a[2:3] = [0, 0]
>>> a
[1, 2, 0, 0, 4, 5]
>>> a[1:1] = [8, 9]
>>> a
[1, 8, 9, 2, 0, 0, 4, 5]
>>> a[1:-1] = []
>>> a
[1, 5]

1.10 命名列表切割方式

>>> a = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> LASTTHREE = slice(-3, None)
>>> LASTTHREE
slice(-3, None, None)
>>> a[LASTTHREE]
[3, 4, 5]

1.11 列表以及迭代器的压缩和解压缩

>>> a = [1, 2, 3]
>>> b = ['a', 'b', 'c']
>>> z = zip(a, b)
>>> z
[(1, 'a'), (2, 'b'), (3, 'c')]
>>> zip(*z)
[(1, 2, 3), ('a', 'b', 'c')]

1.12 列表相邻元素压缩器

>>> a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
>>> zip(*([iter(a)] * 2))
[(1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)]

>>> group_adjacent = lambda a, k: zip(*([iter(a)] * k))
>>> group_adjacent(a, 3)
[(1, 2, 3), (4, 5, 6)]
>>> group_adjacent(a, 2)
[(1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)]
>>> group_adjacent(a, 1)
[(1,), (2,), (3,), (4,), (5,), (6,)]

>>> zip(a[::2], a[1::2])
[(1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)]

>>> zip(a[::3], a[1::3], a[2::3])
[(1, 2, 3), (4, 5, 6)]

>>> group_adjacent = lambda a, k: zip(*(a[i::k] for i in range(k)))
>>> group_adjacent(a, 3)
[(1, 2, 3), (4, 5, 6)]
>>> group_adjacent(a, 2)
[(1, 2), (3, 4), (5, 6)]
>>> group_adjacent(a, 1)
[(1,), (2,), (3,), (4,), (5,), (6,)]

1.13 在列表中用压缩器和迭代器滑动取值窗口

>>> def n_grams(a, n):
...     z = [iter(a[i:]) for i in range(n)]
...     return zip(*z)
...
>>> a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
>>> n_grams(a, 3)
[(1, 2, 3), (2, 3, 4), (3, 4, 5), (4, 5, 6)]
>>> n_grams(a, 2)
[(1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4), (4, 5), (5, 6)]
>>> n_grams(a, 4)
[(1, 2, 3, 4), (2, 3, 4, 5), (3, 4, 5, 6)]

1.14 用压缩器反转字典

>>> m = {'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c': 3, 'd': 4}
>>> m.items()
[('a', 1), ('c', 3), ('b', 2), ('d', 4)]
>>> zip(m.values(), m.keys())
[(1, 'a'), (3, 'c'), (2, 'b'), (4, 'd')]
>>> mi = dict(zip(m.values(), m.keys()))
>>> mi
{1: 'a', 2: 'b', 3: 'c', 4: 'd'}

1.15 列表展开

>>> a = [[1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6]]
>>> list(itertools.chain.from_iterable(a))
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

>>> sum(a, [])
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

>>> [x for l in a for x in l]
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

>>> a = [[[1, 2], [3, 4]], [[5, 6], [7, 8]]]
>>> [x for l1 in a for l2 in l1 for x in l2]
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

>>> a = [1, 2, [3, 4], [[5, 6], [7, 8]]]
>>> flatten = lambda x: [y for l in x for y in flatten(l)] if type(x) is list else [x]
>>> flatten(a)
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

1.16 生成器表达式

>>> g = (x ** 2 for x in xrange(10))
>>> next(g)
0
>>> next(g)
1
>>> next(g)
4
>>> next(g)
9
>>> sum(x ** 3 for x in xrange(10))
2025
>>> sum(x ** 3 for x in xrange(10) if x % 3 == 1)
408

1.17 字典推导

>>> m = {x: x ** 2 for x in range(5)}
>>> m
{0: 0, 1: 1, 2: 4, 3: 9, 4: 16}

>>> m = {x: 'A' + str(x) for x in range(10)}
>>> m
{0: 'A0', 1: 'A1', 2: 'A2', 3: 'A3', 4: 'A4', 5: 'A5', 6: 'A6', 7: 'A7', 8: 'A8', 9: 'A9'}

1.18 用字典推导反转字典

>>> m = {'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c': 3, 'd': 4}
>>> m
{'d': 4, 'a': 1, 'b': 2, 'c': 3}
>>> {v: k for k, v in m.items()}
{1: 'a', 2: 'b', 3: 'c', 4: 'd'}

1.19 命名元组

>>> Point = collections.namedtuple('Point', ['x', 'y'])
>>> p = Point(x=1.0, y=2.0)
>>> p
Point(x=1.0, y=2.0)
>>> p.x
1.0
>>> p.y
2.0

1.20 继承命名元组

>>> class Point(collections.namedtuple('PointBase', ['x', 'y'])):
...     __slots__ = ()
...     def __add__(self, other):
...             return Point(x=self.x + other.x, y=self.y + other.y)
...
>>> p = Point(x=1.0, y=2.0)
>>> q = Point(x=2.0, y=3.0)
>>> p + q
Point(x=3.0, y=5.0)

转自:http://www.lupaworld.com/portal.php?mod=view&aid=237321&page=all

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